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Passive Voice

सामान्य रूप से हम Active Voice Structure का ही प्रयोग करते हैं | Passive Structure का प्रयोग का प्रयोग उसी स्थिति मैं किया जाता है जब Subject का पता न हो या Suject की अपेछा Object को महत्व दिया जाना हो |
Example-
           1-वह कार ठीक कर रहा है |    He is repairing the car.      (Active Voice)
           2-वे घर की सफाई कर रहे हैं |   They are cleaning the house.     (Active Voice)

           1-कार ठीक को जा रही है या कार उसके द्वारा ठीक की जा रही है |     (Passive Voice)
           2-घर की सफाई की जा रही है या घर की सफाई उनके द्वारा की जा रही है |      (Passive Voice)

Active Voice मैं Subject की प्रमुखता होती है , Subject Active होता है |
"In active voice,The subject performs the action expressed by the verb."

Passive Voice मैं subject की प्रमुखता नहीं होती बल्कि Object की प्रमुखता होती है |वाक्य Object से शुरू होता है और Verb Passive होती है |
"In Passive voice,The subject receieves the action expressed by verb."

Example-
           1- He sings a song.
यहाँ He (Subject) , Sings (verb), A song(Object) को व्यक्त करता है |
यह वाक्य Active Voice मैं है , वाक्य का सब्जेक्ट He,Active है वह कार्य कर रहा है, Verb Sing Active Voice मैं है |

          2-A Song is sung by him.
यह वाक्य Passive Voice मैं है | वाक्य मैं Sing (Object Of sentence) है | इस वाक्य मैं Object प्रमुख है तथा Verb Passive है | Subject को को प्रमुखता नहीं दी गई है और यह Object की तरह use हुआ है |

Why and when to use passive structure-


A-जब subject का पता ना हो और यह बताने की आवश्यकता ना हो की काम किसने किया है |
Example-
           1-This temple was built years ago.
           2-The mirror was broken yesterday.
           3- The shop was looted and three persons were arrested.

B-जब Objectको महत्व दिया जाना आवश्यक हो .
Example-
           1-The letter was written by Mr. Ganesh.
           2-The white tiger was klled by the hunter.

C-Scintific and Technical writings मैं passive voice का प्रयोग किया जाता है | क्योकि वहां Subject का महत्व नहीं होता है| महत्व इन्वेंशन को दिया जाता है |
Example-
           1-Hydrocoloric acid is produced when hydrozen and clorine are mixed.
           2-Telepone was invented by Graham Bell.

General Rule to change the voice


1-Active Voice से Passive मैं परिवर्तन करने पर Active का Oject passive का subject बन जाता है| तथा Active का subject passive मैं objective form मैं बदलकर objet बन जाता है |
Example-
           I write a letter.(Active Voice)
           A lette is written by me.(Passive Voice)

2- passive voice मैं verb third form मैं प्रयुकत होती है तथा उसके पहले is /am/are/ was/were/been/being का प्रयोग वाक्य के tense के अनुसार किया जाता है | passive के subject (नए Subject) के अनुसार verb singlular या plural लगानी होती है | यदि subject singular है तो verb भी singular, यदि new subject plural है तो verb भी plural ही लगाती है |
Example-
          She is helping the students.(Active Voice)
          The student are being helped by her.(Passive Voice)
यहाँ plural verb are subject student के अनुसार Use हुई है |

3-passive voice मैं by का प्रयोग उन वाक्यों मैं Agent हेतु किया जाता है जहाँ कार्य किसी की द्वारा किया जाता है , by का प्रयोग verb के बाद और agent (obejct ) से पूर्व किया जाता है | कुछ स्थितियों मैं by और agent का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है |

4-Passive voice मैं active voice का कर्ता निम्न प्रकार से objective form मैं बदल जाता है |
I-> me,He -> him,you -> you,we-> us , she-> her,they-> them, it-> it , who-> whom

5-present, past और future perfect continuous and future continuous का passive नहीं बनता है . इस प्रकार 12 मैं से 8 का ही passive बनता है |

Change of voice in various tense

Present Tense
A)-Present Indefinite- Active Voice मैं Present Indefinite के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Verb + Object
Example-
          1-He writes a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Is/Are/Am + Verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           A   letter         is             written              by        him
           Subject + is + verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + object

           2- I love you.
           you are loved by me.

           3-She washes the clothes in the evening
           The clothes are washed by her in the evening.

2-Present Continuous- Active Voice मैं Present Continuous के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Is/Are/Am +Verb + ing + Object
Example-
          1- He is writing a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Is/Are/Am +being+verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           A letter       is          being          written          by       him

           2- We are playing football.
           Football is being played by us.

           3-She is making tea.
           Tea is being made by her.

3-Present Perfect- Active Voice मैं Present Perfect के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Has/Have+verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + Object
Example-
          
           1-I have written a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Has/Have+been+verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           A letter    has            been        written            by    me.

           2- He has bought a scooter.
           A scooter has been bought by him.

           3-He has repaired the car.
           The car has been repaired by him.

B) Past Tense
1-Past Indefinite- Active Voice मैं Past Indefinite के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Verb की Second फॉर्म + Object
Example-
           1-I wrote a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Was/Were + Verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           A   letter         Was             written              by        me
          
           2- We won the match.
           The match was won by us.

           3-I purchased a pen.
           A pen was purchased by me.

2-Past Continuous- Active Voice मैं Past Continuous के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Was/Were +Verb + ing + Object
Example-
           He was writing a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Was/Were +being+verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           1- He was writing a letter.
           A letter was being written by him.

           2-Ram was driving a car.
           A car was being driven by Ram.

3-They were flying the kites.
           The kites were being flown by them.

3-Past Perfect- Active Voice मैं Past Perfect के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + Had+verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + Object

Example-
           He had written a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + Had+been+ verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           1- He had written a letter.
           A letter had been written by him.
           2-He had killed a dog.
           A dog had been killed by him.
           3-They had completed the project.
           The project had been completed by them.

C)Future Tense
2-Future Indefinite- Active Voice मैं Future Indefinite के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + will/shall+Verb + Object
Example-
           1-I shall write a letter.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
           Subject + will/shall+be + Verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           A   letter         will be              written              by        me
           Subject + will be(verb) + verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + object

           2- He will give you a gift.
           A gift will be given to you by him.

           3-He will phone you.
           You will be phoned by him.

2-Future Perfect- Active Voice मैं Future Perfect के वाक्य का Structure निम्न प्रकार होता है |
           Subject + will have/shall have +Verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + Object
Example-
          I shall have bought a pen.
इनको Passive Voice मैं बदलने पर structure निम्न प्रकार होगा |
Subject + will have been/shall have been +verb की थर्ड फॉर्म + by + agent(Object)
           1- I shall have bought a pen
           A pen will have been bought by me.

           2-Ramesh will have completed the project.
           The project will have been completed by Ramesh.

           3-She will have written a thesis.
           The thesis will have been written by her.



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